For decades now, researchers have documented the impact of journalists’ work on their mental health, even though there has been little discussion of it in newsrooms until recently. A string of mass shootings in recent years brought journalists’ mental health to the forefront. Then came 2020 and the COVID-19 pandemic, a contentious presidential election and growing vitriol toward journalists.
There may be a silver lining to the traumatic year that last year was. There are signs that the topic of journalists’ mental health is becoming less taboo.
More reporters are speaking out about mental health. And more journalism conferences are dedicating panels to the topic. The Investigative Reporters & Editors’ annual conference, held virtually this year in June, for instance, had two panels focused on the issue: “Coping with Trauma” and “Conversation on Mental Health.” The organization has been highlighting the topic at previous conferences. And it dedicated the Q3 2020 edition of The Investigative Reporters & Editors Journal to journalists’ mental health. (The issue is free to IRE members.)
“I’ve been doing this for 20 years and I think more and more people are studying [journalism and trauma] and more people are looking at it,” said Dr. Elana Newman, research director at the Dart Center for Journalism & Trauma at Columbia University, during the “Coping with Trauma” panel discussion, which I moderated.
Paying attention to journalists’ mental health is important to prevent burnout and ensure the overall well-being of reporters and editors, who are doing more with fewer resources.
“One of the reasons that I became a journalist ally and do this work is because you can effect change by stories you break at levels that can change the world,” said Newman, a clinical psychology professor at the University of Tulsa. “Not everybody listens, but it really is important work.”
To be sure, journalists are resilient. But there’s a psychological toll to covering tragic events, whether it’s a global pandemic, local crime stories or the recent collapse of a condo building in South Florida.
Historically, journalists haven’t talked much about the stress and trauma they’ve experienced as part of their job. There are several reasons for this, including the stigma attached to mental illness and the traditional tough-it-out newsroom culture. Some journalists may think that they’re alone in experiencing stress and don’t speak about it. And some may feel guilty about experiencing the trauma of stories they cover, because the event didn’t happen to them.
“I think that, as journalists, your mission is to cover other people, and your focus is on other people,” Newman told the audience in the IRE discussion. “And so, it is sort of a professional obstacle to focus on yourself.”
But it is OK to not feel OK when covering traumatic events, because even though bearing witness to a tragedy is not the same as experiencing that tragedy, it can have an impact on journalists’ mental well-being.
Newman said the concept of experiencing a traumatic event has been redefined to include first responders, including journalists.
“This isn’t a competition,” said Newman.
Depending on their beats or work locations, 4% to 59% of journalists have symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, according to the Dart Center, which advocates for better media coverage of trauma and researching the psychological impact of reporting on traumatic events.
Taking care of yourself
There are many things journalists can do — regardless of whether or not they receive appropriate support from newsroom leaders — to better care for themselves.
Self-care might be an overused term, but there’s science behind it.
“Technically, the definition is the practice of taking action to preserve or improve one’s own health,” said Newman. “Some of us are good exercisers. Some are good meditators. Some are good at making social plans or watching movies. We all have our own things. And we should be trying to have healthy habits. That’s in general — but you’re never going to be perfect. The goal here is to think about what are some things you can do to enhance your health.”
Here are the self-care measures Newman recommended:
Breathe. “When you get tense, simply remembering to breathe helps,” she said.
Take small breaks during your workday. Set up a timer on your phone or computer as a reminder to get up from your desk. Maybe take a walk. Grab a cup of tea or coffee. Studies have shown that small mental breaks can help with focus.
After big stories, take big breaks. Take a day off after finishing a large investigative story and before you move on to the next story or project. “Having a little bit of a break is one of the things that we found is helpful in reducing stress,” Newman said.
Remember your mission and purpose. Write a short mission statement and post it where you can see it regularly — to remind yourself why you do the work you do and why you’re pursuing the story, Newman said.
Have rituals to end your day. “During the pandemic, everything has been blurring and there’s been no boundaries,” Newman said. Shut down your computer at the end of the day. If you live in a small apartment, cover your computer, even if you use it later to watch a movie. Another option: light a candle so that your house smells different from when you’re working.
“Some people take showers. Some people say some words,” Newman said. “Everybody has a different way of doing those kinds of things, but creating some routines and rituals around your work is important because [news stories] never stop.”
Get good sleep. Here are some tips from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Go to bed and wake up at the same time every day, including weekends; remove electronic devices, including TV and smart phones, from your bedroom; don’t eat a large meal and don’t drink alcohol or caffeine before bedtime; and get more exercise.
Disconnect from your email when you can. “The people who do best with technology, in general, are people who see it as a tool and they are not controlled by it,” Newman said. Look at disconnecting as recovery time, just like a weightlifter needs days off between weight lifting sessions, she said. During your weekends or time off, look for a different kind of challenge or do an activity that invigorates you.
Mentally prepare for covering tough stories. When working on a difficult story, think about what’s going to be problematic for you, said Newman.
“Can you think ahead of time what parts of this might be stressful to you, and if so, what would be a good plan for you to do?” Newman asked. “What’s helped you when you’ve been through a difficult time before? What are the signature strengths and skills that you’ve used that have helped you through a hard time? What are the things you’ve done that have been less healthy? Have you drunk too much or eaten too much? Then think about upping the things that were helpful to you and doing a little less of the things that were less helpful to you.”
“One of the things that keeps people resilient is remembering why you do the work you do and the importance of it,” said Newman. Newsroom managers should convey that to the newsroom constantly. Complimenting reporting teams for the work they do is important, she said.
Some other things journalists can do to build resilience:
Build a supportive community, whether it’s at work with colleagues or at home with friends and family.
If you’re on social media, connect to groups where you can interact with like-minded people. I run a Facebook group called Journalists Covering Trauma, where we share information about self-care and journalists’ mental health. There are other Facebook groups like Journalism and Trauma and the Canadian Journalism Forum on Violence and Trauma.
Give emotional support. Giving support is just as effective for building resiliency as receiving it, Newman said. Ask colleagues how they’re doing. If you’re worried about someone and have a close enough working relationship, say, “Hey, I’m worried about you. What can I do? Is there anything you need?” Newman said.
Do good work. Being ethical is a sign of resilience. Being a good journalist is itself being resilient, Newman said.
Cultivate optimism. “Many journalists are cynical by nature and when you do investigations, I think you’re particularly skeptical,” Newman said. “But you can be skeptical about things and still foster optimism.”
At the end of the day, write down two things you’re grateful for. They don’t have to be major happy events. “They’re like something decent that happened that day and I found that it was counter to my skepticism,” she said.
Have some sense of connectedness to the world. It could be through religion, spirituality or nature. Nurture the feeling of being part of something larger than yourself.
Building resilience does take effort and it needs practice — just like your craft, said Newman.
Signs of trouble
If you’re not able to do the work you’re assigned, cannot concentrate in a sustained way or are on edge all the time, that’s a signal that you may need assistance from a mental health professional, Newman said.
If you’re no longer able to feel compassion for your sources, that’s also a sign that you may need some help.
“I think it’s fine to not feel the emotion of your sources. That’s healthy,” she said. “But if you’re feeling numb and not caring and not able to get into understanding their story, that’s a sign that one needs help.”
Monitor yourself and be aware of your emotions, she added.
The Dart Center has a guide on finding a therapist. This month, it launched the Journalist Trauma Support Network to train therapists on journalists’ work and culture so that they can better help journalists. The program is in its pilot phase, during which therapists will start working with a small number of journalists, matched on a confidential basis by the Committee to Protect Journalists, according to the support network.
For additional resources, including vetted self-care apps, please see this tip sheet that I put together for the IRE conference, with guidance from Newman. The tip sheet is also included below, after this brief break of puppies, kittens and a fox.
A list of self-care resources for journalists
- Self-Care Tips for News Media (Dart Center): “These tips are offered as suggestions only, to assist in fostering healthier newsrooms and better journalism. They are based on research findings on well-being and resilience and the practical experience of news professionals in the field.”
- Safety and Self-Care Strategies for Every Beat (Dart Center): Video, where a “panel introduced safety, security and self-care strategies that should be in every reporter’s toolkit, for assignments ranging from neighborhood beats to disasters, mass shootings, and investigative projects.”
- Mindfulness Training for Journalists (Dart Center): On September 10, 2015, “the Dart Center hosted a special half-day workshop on mindfulness practice, led by teachers from the monastic community founded by poet, author and activist Thich Nhat Hanh.”
- Chair Yoga for Journalists (Dart Center): “This 11 min. chair yoga by former foreign correspondent Kimina Lyall, Deputy Director, Dart Centre Asia Pacific is for media practitioners working at their desks or working from home. You do not need to be a yoga practitioner.”
- How journalists can take care of themselves while covering trauma (Poynter): “Journalists can’t properly cover trauma if they’re suffering themselves — here’s a guide to self-care.”
- Under Pressure: Coping with stress, and knowing you’re not alone: A tip sheet compiled by Ken Armstrong, senior reporter at ProPublica.
- 6 tips for protecting your mental health when reporting on trauma (International Journalists’ Network): “The following techniques may help journalists build [their] own resiliency and learn how to report sensibly on trauma-related issues.”
- Choosing a Psychotherapist (Dart Center): A guide for journalists seeking therapy for personal or work-related issues.
- The Journalist Trauma Support Network: A pilot program training therapists to help journalists.
- U.S. Journalism Emergency Fund and Black Journalists Therapy Relief Fund (International Women’s Media Foundation): “The International Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF) is partnering with the Black Journalists Therapy Relief Fund for this joint effort to provide emergency funding to Black journalists.”
- AAPI Journalists’ Financial Assistance for Mental Wellness: “This fund, created in partnership with AAJA, is designed to provide financial assistance specifically for AAPI journalists to help you get the support you need during this time. There are no therapists designated for this fund, so the money can be used at your discretion, whether it’s to continue seeing your current therapist, to see a therapist for the first time, or to pay for your medication.”
Apps and online tools for self-care
- Insight Timer: A free library of thousands of guided meditations
- PTSD Coach: Developed by the VA, the app provides education about PTSD, information about professional care, self assessment and tools to manage stresses of daily life with PTSD.
- Mindfulness Coach: Developed by the VA, the app has been shown to be effective in reducing stress, increasing self awareness and helping with anxiety and depression.
- Insomnia Coach: Developed by the VA, the app is based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.
- COVID Coach: Developed by the VA, the app supports self-care and overall mental health during the pandemic.
- Provider Resilience: The app is designed to help users to stay emotionally healthy while remaining productive. Although it’s designed for health-care providers, it can be useful for journalists.
Resources for managers
- Tips for Managers and Editors (Dart Center): “These tips are for managers and editors to help them prepare and support the reporters who do this difficult and important work.”
- Leading Resilience: A Guide for Editors and News Managers on Working with Freelancers Exposed to Trauma (Dart Center): “A collaboration between ACOS Alliance and Dart Centre Asia Pacific, this guide is designed to help editors and managers understand and support their teams. It is divided into five sections covering both general information and specific suggestions and tips for working with freelancers.”
- Managing Stress & Trauma on Investigative Projects (Dart Center): “A tip sheet from [Dart’s] Executive Director Bruce Shapiro, originally released at the 2005 Investigative Reporters & Editors Annual Conference.”
- How to add well-being to a newsroom natural disaster plan (Radio Television Digital News Association): “Here are five strategies that are musts for any news team.”
- Newsroom depression: Warning signs and strategies (RTDNA): “News directors, you have a stressful enough job to deliver ratings, hire the right people and do the best you can to manage up every day. Pay attention. Here is a checklist of some of journalists’ vulnerabilities to emotional illnesses.”
- Are you ready for trauma in your newsroom? New research may help (RTDNA): “Managers who may have never experienced large-scale shocking events may lack needed experience to successfully navigate staff through unexpected emotional landmines. In Oklahoma City the [news] leaders learned [these lessons.]”
- Staff care tips for managers and editors of news personnel exposed to traumatic events (Dart Center): “Trauma and the coverage of extreme human distress is a core part of journalism. It can be important and deeply rewarding – but it can also affect us personally…. These tips are offered as suggestions to assist healthier journalists and ultimately better journalism.”
- Online Abuse: A Self-Defence Guide (Dart Center): “Online abuse and harassment come in many forms, from borderline incivility all the way up to systematic attacks that are engineered to inflict real psychological harm. This guide offers some thoughts on managing their potential impact.”
- Maintaining Boundaries with Sources, Colleagues & Supervisors (Dart Center): “This tip sheet, drawing on interviews with nine leading women in journalism and other sources, offers strategies for recognizing, mitigating and addressing sexual harassment and other predatory behavior while reporting.”
How our work affects us
- Covering Trauma: Impact on Journalists (Dart Center): “An overview of current research on the occupational hazards for journalists covering traumatic events, the risk factors that aggravate those effects, and some suggestions for mitigating those factors.”
- How journalists’ jobs affect their mental health: a research roundup (The Journalist’s Resource): “Journalists report on complex and difficult topics, including natural disasters, political violence and human suffering. We’ve summarized studies that look at how occupational stress affects journalists’ mental health.”
- Journalists are under stress. What’s the solution? (The Journalist’s Resource): “A large body of research shows how journalists’ jobs can pose a risk to their mental health. We searched these studies for tips on preventing and addressing the stress and trauma of reporting the news.”
- News managers are traumatized, too (RTDNA): “Terror attacks, natural disasters, and other deadly events send shockwaves of trauma throughout newsrooms and entire organizations. Managers can feel guilt, regret, and secondary stress reactions when the journalists they manage suffer from traumatic events.”
- The Dart Center Style Guide for Trauma-Informed Journalism: “This style guide is designed as a quick, authoritative reference for reporters, editors and producers working on tight deadlines. It includes brief evidence-informed guidance on news choices, language usage and ethics in reporting on the impact of trauma on individuals, families and communities; recommendations for appropriate use of relevant psychological and scientific terminology; and special considerations when reporting on consequential trauma-laden issues such as racism and sexual violence.”
- Trauma & Journalism handbook (Dart Center): The handbook distills the expertise of international trauma experts.
- Mental health and journalism (International Journalists’ Network): A six-part podcast series featuring interviews with reporters and mental health experts.
- Journalism and Trauma (self-directed course on Poynter): “This course will teach you how traumatic stress affects victims and how to interview trauma victims with compassion and respect… [and] how to take care of your own health after covering a traumatic event.”
- Covering Mass Tragedies: Tips, story ideas, resources and words of encouragement by members of ‘Journalists Covering Trauma’ Facebook group.
- Covering Sensitive Issues and Coping with Trauma: Moderated by Pulitzer Center Campus Consortium Coordinator Hana Carey, the panel focuses on reporting on sensitive issues and recuperating from traumatic experiences in the field.
- Mental Health for Journalists (Journalist’s Toolbox): “This page features resources for journalists with mental health needs and also links for covering mental health.”
- When the News Breaks the Journalists (J-Source): “Journalists are coming out and talking honestly about mental illness.”