History of Tsunami Research and Countermeasures in Japan
Japan sees more local and distant tsunami events than any other country — indeed the very term “tsunami” comes from the Japanese language. The massive quake and tsunami in March 2011 that have devastated northern parts of that country are situated in a long natural and cultural history that has prompted Japan to take ever-more elaborate preventative measures.
A 2009 report from Nihon University in Tokyo and Japan’s National Defense Academy published in the Proceedings of the Japan Academy, “A Short History of Tsunami Research and Countermeasures in Japan,” explores the history of tsunami events, forecasting, and societal response.
The report notes that:
- The scientific study of such events in Japan began in 1896, following the Meiji Great Sanriku Tsunami, which claimed 22,000 lives and saw water cresting as high as 38 meters.
- Following major tsunami events in 1923, 1933, 1960, 1983, and 1993, Japanese society progressively implemented more sophisticated responses, including relocating houses and employing forecasting methods.
- After the 1933 tsunami, one non-technical “countermeasure” proposed was erecting monuments to increase awareness of the dangers of such events.
- The 1960 Chilean Tsunami originated with an earthquake off the coast of South America, arriving in Japan without any formal warning being issued and bringing waves from three to six meters along the entire coast.
- Seawalls constructed after events in 1960 and 1983 were built at 4.5 meters above sea level, but the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-Oki Earthquake Tsunami saw water heights of more than 11 meters.
- After the 1993 tsunami, a comprehensive strategy was finally put into place in Japan involving defense structures, tsunami-resistant town development and evacuation procedures based on forecast warnings.
A related study on the cultural history and linguistic evolution around the phenomenon can be found in Notes and Records of the Royal Society: “Tsunami: A History of the Term and of Scientific Understanding of the Phenomenon in Japanese and Western Culture.”
Tags: disasters, Asia, safety, oceans
Note to instructor: The suggested assignments are designed for flexibility. They can be used in whole or part and can be adapted to a particular task -- for example, the newswriting assignments could be applied to the writing of the headline, the lead, the nut graph or the full story. Material from the assignments could also be combined with other material, for example, in the writing of a background, feature or local-angle story.
Read the Proceedings of the Japan Academy study "A Short History of Tsunami Research and Countermeasures in Japan."
- Summarize the study in fewer than 40 words.
- Express the study's key term(s) in language a lay audience can understand.
- Evaluate the study's limitations. (For example: Do the results conflict with those of other reliable studies? Are there weaknesses in the study's data or research design?)
Read the issue-related New York Times article "Japanâ€™s Strict Building Codes Saved Lives."
- If you were to rewrite the article based on knowledge of the study, what key changes would you make?
- Write a lead (or headline or nut graph) based on the study.
- Spend 60 minutes exploring the issue by accessing sources of information other than the study. Write a lead (or headline or nut graph) based on the study but informed by the new information. Does the new information significantly change what one would write based on the study alone?
- Interview two sources with a stake in or knowledge of the issue. Be prepared to provide them with a short summary of the study in order to get their response to it. Write a 400-word article about the study incorporating material from the interviews.
- Spend additional time exploring the issue and then write a 1,200-word background article, focusing on major aspects of the issue.