Health Care, Security, Military

Homeless veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan: Comparisons with previous cohorts

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Last updated: November 27, 2012

Veterans Affairs event (Wikimedia)
Veterans Affairs event (Wikimedia)

Homeless veterans, common in many cities and towns throughout the United States, account for between 20-25% of the overall homeless population. The Veteran’s Administration counted nearly 67,500 homeless veterans on a single night in January 2011; more than twice that number spent at least one night in an emergency shelter within the past year. The National Alliance to End Homelessness reported in 2012 that, while the overall number of homeless veterans declined between 2009 and 2011, the number of female veterans without homes more than doubled. A 2012 study, “Prevalence and Risk of Homelessness Among US Veterans,” provides detail on the risk factors that link veterans status and homelessness.

A 2012 report from Yale University published in Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, “Homeless Veterans Who Served in Iraq and Afghanistan: Gender Difference, Combat Exposure, and Comparisons with Previous Cohorts of Homeless Veterans,” sought to better construct a demographic profile of veterans from recent conflicts most at risk for homelessness, and consider these profiles alongside those who served in earlier U.S. wars. The researchers utilized national administrative data from the Veteran Administration’s largest supported housing program — the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (HUDVASH) program — between January 2008 and April 2011. Approximately 2.23%, or 994, of the 44,000 homeless veterans referred to the program during the study period were veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

Key study findings include:

  • “Unlike previous cohorts of homeless veterans, the majority of homeless [Iraq and Afghanistan war] veterans report combat exposure and have been diagnosed with [post-traumatic stress disorder] PTSD … [and] do not receive any VA-service connected disability.”
  • Male homeless veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars tended to be younger, were less likely to have a criminal record and spent less time homeless than veterans of other military conflicts. The typical homeless male veteran was an unmarried White male in his thirties who had experienced homelessness less than twice in the last three years.
  • Female homeless veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars tended to be younger than earlier cohorts of veterans.  The typical homeless female veteran was an unmarried Black woman in her thirties who had experienced homelessness less than twice in the last three years and had never been incarcerated.
  • PTSD and/or a mood disorder afflicted 63% of male homeless veterans and 77% of female homeless veterans.  Of these, more than 90% of men and 75% of women suffered from combat-related PTSD. “Homeless [Iraq and Afghanistan veterans] have substantially higher rates of PTSD … compared to previous cohorts of homeless veterans and non-veterans in which only 8-12% had PTSD.”
  • Reports of psychotic disorders and substance abuse among homeless veterans dropped over time. Reports of psychosis fell from 7-21% in previous cohorts to 5% in homeless Iraq and Afghanistan veterans; reports of substance abuse fell from 28-80% in previous cohorts to 38% in homeless Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

The researchers conclude that the elevated rates of PTSD in more recent homeless veterans require more aggressive early intervention as well as assistance securing disability pensions for this population.

Tags: veterans, mental health, PTSD, war


Writer: | November 27, 2012

Citation: Tsai, Jack; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Rosenheck, Robert A. “Homeless Veterans Who Served in Iraq and Afghanistan: Gender Difference, Combat Exposure, and Comparisons with Previous Cohorts of Homeless Veterans,” Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, Sept 2013, Vol. 40. Issue 5, 400-405. doi: 10.1007/s10488-012-0431-y.

Analysis assignments

Read the issue-related New York Daily News article titled "New Housing in Kingsbridge Heights Helps Veterans Feel 'Grounded.'"

  1. What key insights from the news article and the study in this lesson should reporters be aware of as they cover veterans issues?

Read the full study titled “Homeless Veterans Who Served in Iraq and Afghanistan: Gender Difference, Combat Exposure, and Comparisons with Previous Cohorts of Homeless Veterans.”

  1. What are the study's key technical term(s)? Which ones need to be put into language a lay audience can understand?
  2. Do the study’s authors put the research into context and show how they are advancing the state of knowledge about the subject? If so, what did the previous research indicate?
  3. What is the study’s research method? If there are statistical results, how did the scholars arrive at them?
  4. Evaluate the study's limitations. (For example, are there weaknesses in the study's data or research design?)
  5. How could the findings be misreported or misinterpreted by a reporter? In other words, what are the difficulties in conveying the data accurately? Give an example of a faulty headline or story lead.

Newswriting and digital reporting assignments

  1. Write a lead, headline or nut graph based on the study.
  2. Spend 60 minutes exploring the issue by accessing sources of information other than the study. Write a lead (or headline or nut graph) based on the study but informed by the new information. Does the new information significantly change what one would write based on the study alone?
  3. Compose two Twitter messages of 140 characters or fewer accurately conveying the study’s findings to a general audience. Make sure to use appropriate hashtags.
  4. Choose several key quotations from the study and show how they would be set up and used in a brief blog post.
  5. Map out the structure for a 60-second video segment about the study. What combination of study findings and visual aids could be used?
  6. Find pictures and graphics that might run with a story about the study. If appropriate, also find two related videos to embed in an online posting. Be sure to evaluate the credibility and appropriateness of any materials you would aggregate and repurpose.

Class discussion questions

  1. What is the study’s most important finding?
  2. Would members of the public intuitively understand the study’s findings? If not, what would be the most effective way to relate them?
  3. What kinds of knowledgeable sources you would interview to report the study in context?
  4. How could the study be “localized” and shown to have community implications?
  5. How might the study be explained through the stories of representative individuals? What kinds of people might a reporter feature to make such a story about the study come alive?
  6. What sorts of stories might be generated out of secondary information or ideas discussed in the study?

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Looking Out for Our Troops | The Work First Fellowship Nov 11, 2013 12:43

[…] Iwo Jima to Iraq it is important to remember the battles they face at home. In 2012 Yale researchers found that most homeless veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan suffer from PTSD yet do not receive sufficient […]

Looking Out for Our Veterans | Nov 11, 2013 12:59

[…] Iwo Jima to Iraq it is important to remember the battles they face at home. In 2012 Yale researchers found that most homeless veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan suffer from PTSD yet do not receive sufficient […]

Homelessness in the United States: Trends and demographics Journalist's Resource: Research for Reporting, from Harvard Shorenstein Center Dec 4, 2013 13:33

[…] were 57,849 homeless veterans recorded in 2013, and 40% were unsheltered. But that population has also declined in recent […]

Homelessness in the United States: Trends and demographics | The Washington Sun Dec 12, 2013 10:37

[…] were 57,849 homeless veterans recorded in 2013, and 40% were unsheltered. But that population has also declined in recent […]

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